Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of selective cholinergic replacement with xanomeline tartrate, an ml and m4 selective muscarinic receptor (mAChR) agonist in patients with probable Alzheimer disease (AD). Design: A 6-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel- group trial followed by a 1-month, single-blind, placebo washout. Setting: Outpatients at 17 centers in the United States and Canada. Participants: A total of 343 men and women at least 60 years of age with mild to moderate AD. Interventions: Patients received 75, 150, or 225 mg (low, medium, and high doses) of xanomeline per day or placebo for 6 months. Outcome Measures: Scores on the cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-Cog), the Clinician's Interview-Based Impression of Change (CIBIC+), the Alzheimer's Disease Symptomatology Scale (ADSS), and the Nurses' Observational Scale for Geriatric Patients (NOSGER). Results: A significant treatment effect existed for ADAS-Cog (high dose vs placebo; P≤.05), and C1B1C+ (high dose vs placebo; P≤.02). Treatment Emergent Signs and Symptoms analysis of the ADSS, which assesses behavioral symptoms in patients with AD, disclosed significant (P≤.002) dose-dependent reductions in vocal outbursts, suspiciousness, delusions, agitation, and hallucinations. On end-point analysis, NOSGER, which assesses memory, instrumental activities of daily living, self-care, mood, social behavior, and disturbing behavior in the elderly, also showed a significant dose-response relationship (P≤.02). In the high-dose arm, 52% of patients discontinued treatment because of adverse events; dose-dependent adverse events were predominantly gastrointestinal in nature. Syncope, defined as loss of consciousness and muscle tone, occurred in 12.6% of patients in the high-dose group. Conclusions: The observed improvements in ADAS-Cog and CIBIC+ following treatment with xanomeline provide the first evidence, from a large-scale, placebo-controlled clinical trial, that a direct-acting muscarinic receptor agonist can improve cognitive function in patients with AD. Furthermore, the dramatic and favorable effects on disturbing behaviors in AD suggest a novel approach for treatment of noncognitive symptoms.
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Archives of neurology|
|State||Published - Jan 1 1997|