Effects of vitrectomy and lensectomy on older rhesus macaques: Oxygen distribution, antioxidant status, and aqueous humor dynamics

Carla J. Siegfried, Ying Bo Shui, Baohe Tian, T. Michael Nork, Gregg A. Heatley, Paul L. Kaufman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


PURPOSE. The purpose of this study is to evaluate effects of vitrectomy (PPV) and lens extraction with intraocular lens implantation (PE/IOL) on molecular oxygen (pO2) distribution, aqueous humor antioxidant–oxidant balance, aqueous humor dynamics, and histopathologic changes in the trabecular meshwork (TM) in the older macaque monkey. METHODS. Six rhesus monkeys underwent PPV followed by PE/IOL. pO2, outflow facility, and intraocular pressure (IOP) were measured. Aqueous and vitreous humor specimens were analyzed for antioxidant status and 8-hydroxy-20 -deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a marker of oxidative damage. TM specimens were obtained for immunohistochemical and quantitative PCR analysis. RESULTS. pO2 at baseline revealed steep gradients in the anterior chamber and low levels in the posterior chamber (PC) and around the lens. Following PPV and PE/IOL, pO2 significantly increased in the PC, around the IOL, and angle. IOP increased following both surgical interventions, with no change in outflow facility. Histopathologic analysis did not show changes in TM cell quantification, but there was an increase in 8-OHdG. Quantitative PCR did not reveal significant differences in glaucoma-related gene expression. Aqueous and vitreous humor analysis revealed decreased ascorbate and total reactive antioxidant potential and increased 8-OHdG in the aqueous humor only in the surgical eyes. CONCLUSIONS. Oxygen distribution in the older rhesus monkey is similar to humans at baseline and following surgical interventions. Our findings of histopathologic changes of TM oxidative damage and alterations in the oxidant-antioxidant balance suggest a potential correlation of increased oxygen exposure with oxidative stress/damage and the development of open angle glaucoma.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4003-4014
Number of pages12
JournalInvestigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science
Issue number10
StatePublished - Aug 2017


  • Glaucoma
  • Oxidative damage
  • Trabecular meshwork


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