Purpose: To analyze the effects of preautografting treatment with rituximab (R) on stem-cell mobilization, post-transplantation complications, engraftment, disease-free survival, and overall survival in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Patients and Methods: Single-institution retrospective comparative outcome analysis in a cohort of 273 relapsed chemosensitive NHL patients of whom 127 (47%) received R pretransplantation. Results: R was administered a median of 3 months before autologous transplantation. When compared to the nonrituximab group, R patients were older (56 v 50 years; P < .001), and had delays in post-transplantation platelets recovery (39 v 27 days; P = .001). Pretransplantation R did not affect stem-cell mobilization, post-transplantation early complications, duration of hospitalization, or mortality rates at days 30 and 100. In contrast to patients with low-grade NHL, both disease-free and overall survival rates were significantly better when R was included in the pretransplantation salvage therapy for patients with intermediate-grade NHL. Conclusion: In this large, single-center retrospective analysis, pretransplantation treatment with R was associated with improved survival in patients with intermediate-grade NHL, at the price, however, of a delay in platelet engraftment.