Functional neuroimaging was used to investigate three factors that affect reading performance: first, whether a stimulus is a word or pronounceable nonword (lexicality), second, how often a word is encountered (frequency), and third, whether the pronunciation has a predictable spelling- to-sound correspondence (consistency). Comparisons between word naming (reading) and visual fixation scans revealed stimulusrelated activation differences in seven regions. A left frontal region showed effects of consistency and lexicality, indicating a role in orthographic to phonological transformation. Motor cortex showed an effect of consistency bilaterally, suggesting that motoric processes beyond high-level representations of word phonology influence reading performance. Implications for the integration of these results into theoretical models of word reading are discussed.