We investigated the effects of Nω-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) and fluid loading on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced cardiovascular dysfunction in awake dogs. L-NMMA (40 mg · kg-1 given intravenously over a period of 10 min, and followed by dosing at 40 mg · kg-1 · h-1 for 6 h) and TNF (20 or 45 μg · kg-1 given intravenously for 20 min), given alone or in combination, significantly decreased stroke volume, cardiac index, oxygen delivery, and left-ventricular (LV) function plots over a period of 6 h. Of note was that the cardiac-depressant effects of TNF and L-NMMA given together were significantly less than additive. Thus, the combination was beneficial (or significantly less harmful to cardiac performance than expected), possibly because L-NMMA augmented cardiac preload as shown by significant increases in both pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) and central venous pressure (CVP). Fluid challenges at 6 h (Ringer's solution at 80 ml · kg-1 given over a period of 30 min) also significantly increased PCWP and CVP, and abolished the beneficial preload effect of L-NMMA on cardiac performance. Thus, after fluid loading, the cardiac-depressant effects of TNF and L-NMMA given together became equal to the sum of those produced by TNF and L-NMMA given separately. Although L-NMMA significantly decreased serum nitrite/nitrate levels, TNF did not increase these end products of nitric oxide (NO) production relative to controls. Therefore, after preload abnormalities were eliminated with fluid loading, L-NMMA had no beneficial effect on TNF-induced cardiac depression, and TNF did not increase end products of NO production. These findings are not consistent with NO being the mechanism of TNF-induced acute cardiac depression.
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine|
|Issue number||5 PART I|
|State||Published - Dec 1 1998|