The relationship of cerebral blood volume (CBV) to cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and the cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO2) was examined in rhesus monkeys. In vivo tracer methods employing radioactive oxygen 15 were used to measure CBV, CBF, and CMRO2. Cerebral perfusion pressure was decreased by raising the intracranial pressure (ICP) by infusion of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) into the cisterna magna. The production of progressive intracranial hypertension to an ICP of 70 torr (CPP of 40 torr) caused a rise in CBV accompanied by a steady CBF. With a further increase in ICP to 94 torr, CBV remained elevated without change while CBF declined significantly. Cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen did not change significantly during intracranial hypertension. For comparison, CPP was lowered by reducing mean arterial blood pressure in a second group of monkeys. Only CBF was measured in this group. In this second group of animals the lower limit of CBF autoregulation was reached at a higher CPP (CPP080 torr) than when an increase in ICP was employed (CPP30 torr).