Effects of extracellular calcium on cell membrane resealing during sonoporation

Yun Zhou, Jianmin Cui, Cheri X. Deng

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review


Sonoporation has been exploited as a novel strategy for intracellular drug and gene delivery. In sonoporation, ultrasound application generates transient pores or openings in the cell membrane that allow entry of extracellular agents normally not permeable to the cell membrane. In order to improve the sonoporation outcome, we seek to obtain improved understanding of the sonoporation mechanism and investigate the factors affecting sonoporation process. We established a voltage clamp technique for real time measurement of sonoporation at single cell level using Xenopus oocytes as a model system. As both cell survival and intracellular delivery efficiency of drug or genes depend on the sonoporation dynamic process, and Calcium plays important roles in cellular processes, we focus on studying of the effect of extracellular Calcium concentration on the formation, extension, and resealing of membrane pores in sonoporation. We obtained experimental results demonstrating that the cell membrane reseals in the order of seconds in the presence of physiological level of extracellular [Ca]. We measured the resealing as function of extracellular [Ca] (0-1.8mM) and observed that the resealing rate decreases as extracellular [Ca] decreases from normal physiological level. No resealing was demonstrated when 1mM EGTA was added in the extracellular medium to chelate the [Ca] extracellularly. Our experimental findings suggest that extracellular Calcium plays an important role in controlling membrane resealing in sonoporation and thus the sonoporation outcome such as cell survival and delivery efficiency.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationTHERAPEUTIC ULTRASOUND
Subtitle of host publication5th International Symposium on Therapeutic Ultrasound
Number of pages5
StatePublished - May 8 2006
EventTHERAPEUTIC ULTRASOUND: 5th International Symposium on Therapeutic Ultrasound - Boston, MA, United States
Duration: Oct 27 2005Oct 29 2005

Publication series

NameAIP Conference Proceedings
ISSN (Print)0094-243X
ISSN (Electronic)1551-7616


ConferenceTHERAPEUTIC ULTRASOUND: 5th International Symposium on Therapeutic Ultrasound
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityBoston, MA


  • Calcium
  • Cell membrane repair
  • Drug and gene delivery
  • Sonoporation


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