The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of oral administration of probiotic Halomonas sp. B12 (previously isolated from the intestine of Fenneropenaeus chinensis) on the intestinal microflora, immunological parameters, and midgut histological structure of F. chinensis. Shrimp (initial weight: 4.00 ± 0.10g) were fed diets containing Halomonas sp. B12 at 0 (control), 3.68 × 10 7 (T1), and 7.18 × 10 10 (T2) colony-forming units per gram for 6 wk, respectively. The results showed that the total bacterial counts significantly increased (P < 0.05) with supplementation of dietary probiotic B12. However, Vibrio spp. counts significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in the intestine of shrimp with increasing dietary probiotic B12. Hemocyte counts in the shrimp fed the diets supplemented with probiotic B12 were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the control group. Both phenoloxidase (PO) activity in plasma and hemocyte lysate supernatant were higher in the shrimp fed diets supplemented with probiotic B12 compared with the control group. No significant difference was found in PO activity in plasma between the T1 and the control (P > 0.05). PO activity in plasma was higher in T2 than that in T1. Cumulative shrimp mortality after 10-d white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge test significantly decreased with increasing dietary probiotic B12 (P < 0.05). No significant difference was found between T1 and control in cumulative shrimp mortality after challenge test (P > 0.05). The oral administration of probiotic B12 to F.chinensis was beneficial to protect the integrity of shrimp intestinal mucosal layer. In summary, even though the low dose (T1) had some effects on bacterial counts and immunological parameters, only the high dose (T2) significantly increased the resistance of the shrimp to WSSV.