Muscle biopsies were obtained from three cyclists and four runners at the end of 10-24 mo of intensive training and after intervals of detraining up to 12 wk. Control samples came from four untrained persons and four former athletes. Macro mixed fiber samples were assayed for lactate dehydrogenase, adenylate kinase, glycogen phosphorylase, citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase, β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, β-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, hexokinase, 1-phosphofructokinase, fructose-bisphosphatase, protein, and total creatine. In the case of three trained persons and two controls, the first six of the enzymes were also measured in individual fibers. Before detraining, enzymes of oxidative metabolism were substantially higher than in controls, and differences in levels between type I and type II fibers were smaller. During detraining, oxidative enzymes were decreased in both fiber types but the type II fibers did not fall to control levels even after 12 wk. Phosphorylase increased with detraining in both fiber types. The same is true for lactate dehydrogenase and adenylate kinase, except in the case of the type I fibers of one individual. Among the other six enzymes (measured in mixed fiber samples), only hexokinase was consistently affected (decreased) by detraining.