Effects of computer-based cognitive training combined with physical training for older adults with cognitive impairment: A four-arm randomized controlled trial

I. Ching Chuang, Hui Yan Chiau, Wan Wen Liao, Yih Ru Wu, Chih Hung Chang, Ching Yi Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objective: Combined physical (PHY) and cognitive (COG) training in sequential (SEQ) and simultaneous (SIMUL) sessions may delay the progression of cognitive impairment. To date, no study has directly compared in older adults with cognitive impairment the effects of COG training, PHY training, SEQ motor-cognitive training and SIMUL motor-cognitve training on specific indices of cognitive performance and activities of daily living (ADL). The purpose of this study was to determine whether SEQ and SIMUL motor-cognitive training can improve treatment outcomes compared with PHY or COG training alone. We also aimed to compare the effects of SEQ versus SIMUL motor-cognitive training on cognitive functions and instrumental ADL (IADL) in older adults with cognitive impairment. Methods: A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted. Eighty older adults with cognitive impairment were randomly assigned to COG, PHY, SEQ or SIMUL training groups. The intervention consisted of 90-min training sessions, totaling 36 sessions. Outcome measures were the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, three subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) and the Lawton IADL scale. Results: Significant interaction effects between group and time were found in WMS-spatial span (p = 0.04) and WMS-word lists (p = 0.041). For WMS-spatial span, the SIMUL group showed outperformed the COG (p = 0.039), PHY (p = 0.010) and SEQ groups (p = 0.017). For WMS-word lists, the SEQ group improve more than COG (p = 0.013), PHY (p = 0.030) and SIMUL (p = 0.019) groups. No significant differences were found in IADL performance among four groups (p = 0.645). Conclusions: Our study showed SEQ and SIMUL motor-cognitive training led to more pronounced improvements in visuospatial working memory or verbal memory compared with isolated COG or PHY training for community-based older adults with cognitive impairment. For enhancing effects on IADL, we suggest the use of sensitive measurement tools and context-enriched cognitive training involving real-life task demands.

Original languageEnglish
JournalDigital Health
Volume9
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2023

Keywords

  • Cognitive impairment
  • cognitive training
  • physical training

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