Effective use of hormonal contraceptives. Part II: Combined hormonal injectables, progestogen-only injectables and contraceptive implants

Camaryn E. Chrisman, Kathryn M. Curtis, Anshu P. Mohllajee, Mary E. Gaffield, Herbert B. Peterson

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations

Abstract

Our objective in this systematic review was to evaluate evidence regarding controversial issues in the clinical management of women using injectable and implantable contraceptives. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for reports of primary research, published from 1966 through April 2005 in peer-reviewed journals, related to the initiation of combined or progestogen-only injectables and contraceptive implants, the effects of late contraceptive injections or the duration of levonorgestrel implant effectiveness. Results of the studies we reviewed showed that initiating injectable and implantable contraceptives through day 7 of the menstrual cycle suppresses follicular activity. Time to ovulation after study participants discontinued using injectables varied widely: from 4 to 8 weeks after the last administration of combined injectables, from 15 to 49 weeks after the last injection of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate and from 5 to 19 weeks after the last injection of norethisterone enanthate. Norplant implants left in place for up to seven completed years remained effective among women who weighed <70 kg at the time of implant insertion, but their effectiveness decreased among women weighing <70 kg.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)125-133
Number of pages9
JournalContraception
Volume73
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2006
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Contraception
  • Evidence-based review
  • Follicular development
  • Ovulation
  • Time factors

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