OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of different reader and patient parameters on the degree of agreement and the rate of misclassification of vesicoureteric reflux grading on last-image-hold frames in relation to spot-exposed frames from voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) as well as to determine the nature of reflux misclassification on last-image-hold frames. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Blinded readers conducted a retrospective evaluation of last-image-hold and spot-exposed frames of the renal fossae from 191 sequential VCUG examinations performed during a five-year period. Kappa tests were used to determine the agreement between reflux gradings and to assess the impact of reader and patient parameters. Pearson product-moment correlations were used to evaluate the effect of patient parameters on reader level of certainty regarding reflux grading. RESULTS. We measured almost perfect overall agreement for more experienced readers and substantial overall agreement for less experienced readers. Point estimates of overall misclassification were less than 2% for more experienced readers and less than 4% for less experienced readers. The readers’ level of certainty about reflux grading had a positive impact on agreement values and misclassification rates. Experienced readers’ most common misclassification was assigning reflux a grade of 3 on a spot-exposed frame and a grade of 2 on an equivalent last-image-hold frame. Inexperienced readers’ most common misclassification involved missing reflux altogether. CONCLUSION. Instances of grade 2 reflux on last-image-hold frames may warrant supplemental evaluation with spot-exposed frames. Otherwise, a reader’s level of certainty regarding reflux grading on a last-image-hold frame may help determine whether a supplemental spot-exposed frame would be beneficial.
- Voiding cystourethrogram