Objective: High protein (particularly leucine-rich whey protein) intake is recommended to mitigate the adverse effect of weight loss on muscle mass. The effectiveness of this approach is unknown. Methods: Seventy middle-aged (50-65 years old) postmenopausal women with obesity were randomized to (1) weight maintenance (WM), (2) weight loss and the recommended daily allowance for protein (0.8 g/kg/d) (WL group), or (3) weight loss plus whey protein supplementation (total protein: 1.2 g/kg/d) (WL-PS group). Thigh muscle volume and strength were assessed at baseline and after 5% and 10% weight loss in the weight-loss groups and after matched time periods (∼3 and 6 months, respectively) in the WM group. Results: A 5% weight loss caused a greater decrease in thigh muscle volume in the WL group than the WL-PS group (4.7% ± 0.7% vs. 2.8% ± 0.8%, respectively; P < 0.05). After 10% weight loss, there was no statistically significant difference in muscle mass loss in the two groups, and the total loss was small in both groups (5.5% ± 0.8% and 4.5% ± 0.7%, respectively). The dietary interventions did not affect muscle strength. Conclusions: Whey protein supplementation during diet-induced weight loss does not have clinically important therapeutic effects on muscle mass or strength in middle-aged postmenopausal women with obesity.