The metabolic effects of imidazole were tested in rat renal cortex. Imidazole enhanced the activity of renal cortical phosphodiesterase in vitro. Imidazole inhibited glucose production in a dose-dependent fashion from a variety of substrates in the gluconeogenic pathway proximal to the triose phosphates. The stimulation in renal gluconeogenesis resulting from isoproterenol and parathyroid hormone was inhibited by imidazole. These changes correlated with an inhibition of the augmented levels of renal cortical cyclic AMP levels produced by these hormones. These studies indicate that imidazole is an effective activator of phosphodiesterase in intact renal cells and lend further support to the suggestion that the stimulation of renal gluconeogenesis produced by isoproterenol and parathyroid hormone is mediated by a release of cyclic AMP.