Objective - To compare kinetics of the metabolism of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) apolipoprotein B (apoB) before and after thyroidectomy in mares. Animals - 5 healthy adult mares. Procedure - Thyroidectomy was performed in euthyroid mares. Kinetics of VLDL apoB metabolism were measured before and after thyroidectomy by use of a bolus IV injection of 5,5,5-2H3 (98%) leucine (5 mg/kg) and subsequent isolation of labeled amino acid from plasma and VLDL. Labeled leucine was quantified by use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Production rate (PR), delay time, and fractional catabolic rate (FCR) were calculated for the 2 forms of equine VLDL, apoB-48 VLDL, and apoB-100 VLDL. Plasma lipid concentrations were measured, and VLDL composition was determined. Results - Physical appearance of horses was not altered by thyroidectomy. Significantly lower mean blood concentrations of thyroid hormones and non-esterified fatty acids were detected following thyroidectomy. Mean percentage of free cholesterol in VLDL was significantly higher after thyroidectomy. Mean plasma VLDL concentration or kinetics of apoB-48 or apoB-100 were not significantly altered by thyroidectomy. Mean ± SEM PR was significantly lower (8.70 ± 1.61 mg/kg/d) and mean delay time significantly longer (1.58 ± 0.12 hours) for apoB-48 VLDL in euthyroid mares, compared with values for hyroidectomized mares (16.15 ± 2.24 mg/kg/d and 0.93 ± 0.10 hours, respectively). Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - Hypothyroidism did not significantly alter plasma VLDL concentrations or kinetics of VLDL apoB metabolism. Metabolism of apoB-48 VLDL differed significantly from that of apoB-100 VLDL in euthyroid mares.