Effect of deoxycholate on immunoglobulin G concentration in bile: Studies in humans and pigs

Juan R. Sanabria, Aravinda Upadhya, Brendan Mullen, P. Robert C. Harvey, Steven M. Strasberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


Because an increase in biliary deoxycholate levels seems to be a risk factor for cholesterol gallstone formation, we determined the relationship between deoxycholate levels and levels of the pronucleating protein, immunoglobulin G (Ig) in human gallbladder bile. Patients with cholesterol gallstones had a higher concentration of biliary IgG compared with a pigmented stone group and control patients. This was associated with the simultaneous presence of two conditions in the cholesterol stone group, supersaturated bile and a high deoxycholate/cholate ratio. The other patient groups met only one of the two conditions. Next, animal studies were performed to determine if model biles mimicking the two conditions could affect IgG secretion by the gallbladder. Gallbladders were exposed in vivo and then in an Ussing chamber to model biles. The voltage clamp technique was used to monitor functional integrity of the preparation. Three different model biles were tested: (1) taurodeoxycholate (TDC), 80%; taurocholate (TC), 20%; and cholesterol saturation index (CSI), 1.2; (2) TDC, 20%; TC, 80%; and CSI, 1.2; and (3) TDC, 80%; TC, 20%; and CSI, 0.6. IgG concentrations became significantly higher in group 1 than in the other two groups. The concentration of mucous glycoprotein was also significantly greater in group 1 when compared with group 2. Plasma cells were increased in number in mucosal and submucosal layers in group 1. We conclude that cholesterol supersaturated model bile with high content of TDC induces gallbladder epithelial alterations, which increase the luminal concentration of IgG and mucous glycoprotein.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)215-222
Number of pages8
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1995


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