Effect of chronic alcohol exposure on gut vitamin B7 uptake: Involvement of epigenetic mechanisms and effect of alcohol metabolites

Kalidas Ramamoorthy, Subrata Sabui, Padmanabhan Srinivasan, Saleh Al-Juburi, Quang Pham, Brian D. Chu, Rita D. Simoes, James M. Fleckenstein, Hamid M. Said

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Vitamin B7 (biotin) is essential for normal health and its deficiency/suboptimal levels occur in a variety of conditions including chronic alcoholism. Mammals, including humans, obtain biotin from diet and gut-microbiota via absorption along the intestinal tract. The absorption process is carrier mediated and involves the sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT; SLC5A6). We have previously shown that chronic alcohol exposure significantly inhibits intestinal/colonic biotin uptake via suppression of Slc5a6 transcription in animal and cell line models. However, little is known about the transcriptional/epigenetic factors that mediate this suppression. In addition, the effect of alcohol metabolites (generated via alcohol metabolism by gut microbiota and host tissues) on biotin uptake is still unknown. To address these questions, we first demonstrated that chronic alcohol exposure inhibits small intestinal and colonic biotin uptake and SMVT expression in human differentiated enteroid and colonoid monolayers. We then showed that chronic alcohol exposures of both, Caco-2 cells and mice, are associated with a significant suppression in expression of the nuclear factor KLF-4 (needed for Slc5a6 promoter activity), as well as with epigenetic alterations (histone modifications). We also found that chronic exposure of NCM460 human colonic epithelial cells as well as human differentiated colonoid monolayers, to alcohol metabolites (acetaldehyde, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate) significantly inhibited biotin uptake and SMVT expression. These findings shed light onto the molecular/epigenetic mechanisms that mediate the inhibitory effect of chronic alcohol exposure on intestinal biotin uptake. They further show that alcohol metabolites are also capable of inhibiting biotin uptake in the gut.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)G123-G133
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 1 2021


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