This study was designed to investigate the activity of CGP 20376, a benzothiazole derivative, against Brugia malayi in jirds and to illustrate the utility of parasite antigen detection as a means of monitoring drug efficacy in filariasis. Drug treatment was 100% effective in jirds treated 3 or 24 days after infection. Microfilaria and adult worm counts were reduced (relative to counts in sham-treated control animals) by 96% and 95%, respectively, in animals treated 153 days after infection. Four of 6 animals in this treatment group cleared their microfilaremias and were free of adult worms 5 mo after treatment. Thus, CGP 20376 was effective against all life cycle stages of B. malayi in jirds. Parasite antigen levels in jird sera were consistent with parasitological results in all treatment groups, but antigen clearance was incomplete in some cases after apparently successful treatment of mature and immature infections.