Effect of Antibiotic-Mediated Microbiome Modulation on Rotavirus Vaccine Immunogenicity: A Human, Randomized-Control Proof-of-Concept Trial

Vanessa C. Harris, Bastiaan W. Haak, Scott A. Handley, Baoming Jiang, Daniel E. Velasquez, Barry L. Hykes, Lindsay Droit, Guy A.M. Berbers, Elles Marleen Kemper, Ester M.M. van Leeuwen, Michael Boele van Hensbroek, Willem Joost Wiersinga

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

19 Scopus citations

Abstract

Rotavirus vaccines (RVV) protect against childhood gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus (RV) but have decreased effectiveness in low- and middle-income settings. This proof-of-concept, randomized-controlled, open-label trial tested if microbiome modulation can improve RVV immunogenicity. Healthy adults were randomized and administered broad-spectrum (oral vancomycin, ciprofloxacin, metronidazole), narrow-spectrum (vancomycin), or no antibiotics and then vaccinated with RVV, 21 per group per protocol. Baseline anti-RV IgA was high in all subjects. Although antibiotics did not alter absolute anti-RV IgA titers, RVV immunogenicity was boosted at 7 days in the narrow-spectrum group. Further, antibiotics increased fecal shedding of RV while also rapidly altering gut bacterial beta diversity. Beta diversity associated with RVV immunogenicity boosting at day 7 and specific bacterial taxa that distinguish RVV boosters and RV shedders were identified. Despite the negative primary endpoint, this study demonstrates that microbiota modification alters the immune response to RVV and supports further exploration of microbiome manipulation to improve RVV immunogenicity. Rotavirus vaccines (RVV) are less effective in poor-resourced settings. This randomized-controlled trial in adults tested the effect of microbiome modulation via broad-spectrum, narrow-spectrum, or no antibiotics on RVV performance. Absolute anti-RV IgA titer did not change. However, antibiotics resulted in higher day-7 boosting and increased RV-antigen shedding.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)197-207.e4
JournalCell Host and Microbe
Volume24
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 8 2018

Keywords

  • Bacteroidetes
  • Firmicutes
  • Proteobacteria
  • anti-IgA
  • ciprofloxacin
  • gastroenteritis
  • gastrointestinal microbiome
  • immunoglobulin A
  • metronidazole
  • microbiota
  • oral vaccines
  • rotavirus
  • rotavirus infections
  • rotavirus vaccines
  • vaccines
  • vancomycin

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Effect of Antibiotic-Mediated Microbiome Modulation on Rotavirus Vaccine Immunogenicity: A Human, Randomized-Control Proof-of-Concept Trial'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

  • Cite this

    Harris, V. C., Haak, B. W., Handley, S. A., Jiang, B., Velasquez, D. E., Hykes, B. L., Droit, L., Berbers, G. A. M., Kemper, E. M., van Leeuwen, E. M. M., Boele van Hensbroek, M., & Wiersinga, W. J. (2018). Effect of Antibiotic-Mediated Microbiome Modulation on Rotavirus Vaccine Immunogenicity: A Human, Randomized-Control Proof-of-Concept Trial. Cell Host and Microbe, 24(2), 197-207.e4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2018.07.005