EEG reading with or without clinical information – a real-world practice study

Fábio A. Nascimento, Jin Jing, Sándor Beniczky, Marcia Olandoski, Selim R. Benbadis, Andrew J. Cole, M. Brandon Westover

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


We sought to investigate electroencephalographers’ real-world behaviors and opinions concerning reading routine EEG (rEEG) with or without clinical information. An eight-question, anonymous, online survey targeted at electroencephalographers was disseminated on social media from the authors’ personal accounts and emailed to authors’ select colleagues. A total of 389 responses were included. Most respondents reported examining clinical information before describing rEEG findings. Nonetheless, only a minority of respondents believe that EEG analysis/description should be influenced by clinical information. We recommend reviewing clinical data only after an unbiased EEG read to prevent history bias and ensure generation of reliable electrodiagnostic information.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)394-397
Number of pages4
JournalNeurophysiologie Clinique
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 2022


  • Cognitive bias
  • EEG
  • Electroencephalo-graphy
  • History bias


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