Objectives: To examine real-time relationships between social interactions and poststroke mood and somatic symptoms in participants’ daily environments. Design: Prospective observational study using smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment (EMA) surveys 5 times a day for 2 weeks. Multilevel models were used to analyze data for concurrent and lagged associations. Setting: Community. Participants: Adults (N=48) with mild stroke. Interventions: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures: EMA measures of self-appraisal of social interactions (confidence, satisfaction, and success), as well as mood (depression and anxiety) and somatic (pain and fatigue) symptoms. Results: In concurrent associations, increased depressed mood was associated with reduced ratings of all aspects of social interactions. Fatigue was associated with reduced ratings of social satisfaction and success. In lagged associations, increased anxious mood preceded increased subsequent social confidence. Higher average social satisfaction, confidence, and success were related to lower momentary fatigue, anxious mood, and depressed mood at the next time point. Regarding clinicodemographic factors, being employed was concurrently related to increased social interactions. An increased number of comorbidities predicted higher somatic, but not mood, symptoms at the next time point. Conclusions: This study provides preliminary evidence of dynamic relationships between social interactions and somatic and mood symptoms in individuals with mild stroke. Interventions to not only address the sequelae of symptoms, but also to promote participation in social activities in poststroke life should be explored.
- Ecological momentary assessment
- Interpersonal relations