Background: DYRK1A-Related Intellectual Disability Syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant condition characterized by intellectual disability, speech and language delays, microcephaly, facial dysmorphism, and feeding difficulties. Affected individuals represent simplex cases that result from de novo heterozygous pathogenic variants in DYRK1A (OMIM 614104), or chromosomal structural rearrangements involving the DYRK1A locus. Due to the rarity of DYRK1A-Related Intellectual Disability Syndrome, the spectrum of symptoms associated with this disease has not been completely defined. Methods and results: We present two unrelated cases of DYRK1A-Related Intellectual Disability Syndrome resulting from variants in DYRK1A. Both probands presented to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) with multiple dysmorphic facial features, primary microcephaly, absent or minimal speech, feeding difficulties, and cognitive impairment; features that have been previously reported in individuals with DYRK1A. During NIH evaluation, additional features of enlarged cerebral subarachnoid spaces, retinal vascular tortuosity, and bilateral anomalous large optic discs with increased cup-to-disc ratio were identified in the first proband and multiple ophthalmologic abnormalities and sensorineural hearing loss were identified in the second proband. Conclusion: We recommend that the workup of future of patients include a comprehensive eye exam. Early establishment of physical, occupational, and speech therapy may help in the management of ataxia, hypertonia, and speech impairments common in these patients.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere1544
JournalMolecular Genetics and Genomic Medicine
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2020


  • DYRK1A
  • Down syndrome
  • autosomal dominant mental retardation 7
  • feeding difficulties
  • microcephaly


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