Duration of symptoms and manometric parameters offer clues to diagnosis of pseudoachalasia

Maté Gergely, Michael D. Mello, Arvind Rengarajan, C. Prakash Gyawali

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Pseudoachalasia manifests high-resolution manometry (HRM) findings of achalasia but results from a secondary process. We analyzed clinical and HRM characteristics of pseudoachalasia, including malignant and non-malignant subtypes. Methods: High-resolution manometry was retrospectively reviewed in patients with confirmed pseudoachalasia, and corroborated with endoscopic and radiographic studies. A control cohort of idiopathic achalasia patients was identified. Clinical characteristics, Eckardt score, and HRM metrics were extracted from institutional records. Grouped data and medians (interquartile range) were compared between pseudoachalasia and idiopathic achalasia, and between malignant and non-malignant pseudoachalasia, using parametric and non-parametric statistical tests. Key Results: Of 28 pseudoachalasia patients (62.2 ± 2.5 years, 60.7% female), 18 (64.3%) had malignancy, and 10 (35.7%) had non-malignant obstruction. Although Eckardt score did not differentiate pseudoachalasia from 58 achalasia patients (55.9 ± 2.5 years, 53.4% female), weight loss was greater (median 9.1 [5.0-18.5] vs 3.6 [0-9.1] kg, P <.02) with shorter duration of symptoms (median 12.9 [8.0-38.6] vs 36.0 [25.7-45.0] weeks, P <.001] in pseudoachalasia. Esophagogastric junction (EGJ) metrics demonstrated lower mean IRP values and lower EGJ contractile integral in pseudoachalasia (P <.04 for each comparison with idiopathic achalasia). Type 1 pattern was more frequent in pseudoachalasia (39.3% vs 13.8%, P <.008). Pseudoachalasia demonstrated incomplete HRM patterns, with lower rates of lack of peristalsis (79.6%, vs 93.1% in achalasia, P <.05). Despite higher Eckardt scores in malignant vs non-malignant pseudoachalasia (median 8.0 [7.0-9.0] vs 6.0 [3.5-7.8], P <.03], no significant HRM differences were noted. Conclusions and Inferences: Pseudoachalasia manifests with a shorter history, greater weight loss, and incomplete HRM achalasia patterns compared to achalasia.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere13965
JournalNeurogastroenterology and Motility
Volume33
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2021

Keywords

  • achalasia
  • dysphagia
  • high-resolution manometry
  • pseudoachalasia

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