Objective: Transcarotid artery revascularization (TCAR) has become an increasingly popular alternative for the treatment of carotid bifurcation stenosis. TCAR employs carotid blood flow reversal through an ex vivo common carotid artery to femoral vein shunt for neuroprotection during the placement and angioplasty of the carotid artery stent. There is a lack of data regarding an association between the duration of flow reversal and neurologic complications or other adverse events. We analyzed TCAR flow reversal time in relation to major adverse events. Methods: There were 307 patients who underwent TCAR at four high-volume academic institutions. Patients were separated on the basis of the duration of carotid flow reversal as follows: group I, ≤8 minutes (n = 138); group II, 9-13 minutes (n = 105); group III, 14-20 minutes (n = 42); and group IV, >20 minutes (n = 22). Adverse events including stroke (assessed by a National Institute of Health Stroke Scale-certified examiner), myocardial infarction (MI), and death at discharge and 30 days were collected in all patients and were compared between groups using one-way analysis of variance and χ2 analysis. Results: There were four strokes in the total cohort, yielding an overall stroke rate of 1.3%. All strokes were minor in nature; two were ipsilateral and two were contralateral. All patients demonstrated full recovery at 30 days. We found no significant difference in the stroke rate between any of the groups: I, 1.5% (2/138); II, 1.9% (2/105); III, 0% (0/42); and IV, 0% (0/22; P = .76). The four strokes occurred in patients with flow reversal time of 6, 7, 11, and 12 minutes. There was also no difference in the 30-day composite stroke/death or stroke/death/MI rates among the groups. Conclusions: The length of flow reversal during TCAR does not affect rates of stroke, MI, or death. These data suggest that operators should focus on the technical aspects of the procedure during flow reversal rather than on its duration.
- Carotid artery stenosis
- Carotid artery stent
- Flow reversal
- Transcarotid artery revascularization