Durable reduction of Clostridioides difficile infection recurrence and microbiome restoration after treatment with RBX2660: results from an open-label phase 2 clinical trial

Robert Orenstein, Erik R. Dubberke, Sahil Khanna, Christine H. Lee, David Yoho, Stuart Johnson, Gail Hecht, Herbert L. DuPont, Dale N. Gerding, Ken F. Blount, Sarah Mische, Adam Harvey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Background: Effective treatment options for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (rCDI) are limited, with high recurrence rates associated with the current standard of care. Herein we report results from an open-label Phase 2 trial to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and durability of RBX2660—a standardized microbiota-based investigational live biotherapeutic—and a closely-matched historical control cohort. Methods: This prospective, multicenter, open-label Phase 2 study enrolled patients who had experienced either ≥ 2 recurrences of CDI, treated by standard-of-care antibiotic therapy, after a primary CDI episode, or ≥ 2 episodes of severe CDI requiring hospitalization. Participants received up to 2 doses of RBX2660 rectally administered with doses 7 days apart. Treatment success was defined as the absence of CDI diarrhea without the need for retreatment for 8 weeks after completing study treatment. A historical control group with matched inclusion and exclusion criteria was identified from a retrospective chart review of participants treated with standard-of-care antibiotics for recurrent CDI who matched key criteria for the study. The primary objective was to compare treatment success of RBX2660 to the historical control group. A key secondary outcome was the safety profile of RBX2660, including adverse events and CDI occurrence through 24 months after treatment. In addition, fecal samples from RBX2660-treated participants were sequenced to evaluate microbiome composition and functional changes from before to after treatment. Results: In this Phase 2 open-label clinical trial, RBX2660 demonstrated a 78.9% (112/142) treatment success rate compared to a 30.7% (23/75) for the historical control group (p < 0.0001; Chi-square test). Post-hoc analysis indicated that 91% (88/97) of evaluable RBX2660 responders remained CDI occurrence-free to 24 months after treatment demonstrating durability. RBX2660 was well-tolerated with mostly mild to moderate adverse events. The composition and diversity of RBX2660 responders’ fecal microbiome significantly changed from before to after treatment to become more similar to RBX2660, and these changes were durable to 24 months after treatment. Conclusions: In this Phase 2 trial, RBX2660 was safe and effective for reducing rCDI recurrence as compared to a historical control group. Microbiome changes are consistent with restorative changes implicated in resisting C. difficile recurrence.

Original languageEnglish
Article number245
JournalBMC Infectious Diseases
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2022


  • Clinical trial
  • Clostridioides difficile
  • Durability
  • Microbiota-based therapy
  • Recurrence
  • Response


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