Dual-energy CT enables the simultaneous acquisition of CT images at two different x-ray energy spectra. By acquiring high- and low-energy spectral data, dual-energy CT can provide unique qualitative and quantitative information about tissue composition, allowing differentiation of multiple materials including iodinated contrast agents. The two dual-energy CT postprocessing techniques that best exploit the advantages of dual-energy CT in children are the material-decomposition images (which include virtual nonenhanced, iodine, perfused lung blood volume, lung vessel, automated bone removal, and renal stone characterization images) and virtual monoenergetic images. Clinical applications include assessment of the arterial system, lung perfusion, neoplasm, bowel diseases, renal calculi, tumor response to treatment, and metal implants. Of importance, the radiation exposure level of dual-energy CT is equivalent to or less than that of conventional single-energy CT. In this review, the authors discuss the basic principles of the dual-energy CT technologies and postprocessing techniques and review current clinical applications in the pediatric chest and abdomen.