Combinatorial binding of transcription factors (TFs) and cofactors to specific regulatory regions of target genes in vivo is an important mechanism of transcriptional regulation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a powerful technique to detect protein binding to specific regions of target genes in vivo. However, conventional ChIP analysis for individual factors (single ChIP) does not provide information on co-occupancy of two interacting TFs on target genes, even if both bind to the same chromatin regions. Double ChIP analysis involves sequential (double) immunoprecipitation of two chromatin-binding proteins and can be used to study co-occupancy of two or more factors on specific regions of the same DNA allele. Furthermore, by including a cell type-specific protein in double-ChIP, target co-occupancy in a specific cell type can be studied even if the other partner is more widely expressed. In this chapter, we describe a detailed protocol for double ChIP analysis in mouse retinas. Using the rod-specific transcription factor NR2E3 and the cone/rod homeobox protein CRX as examples, we show that NR2E3 and CRX are co-enriched on the promoter of active Rho and Rbp3 genes in rods, but are present to a much lesser degree on the promoters of silent cone opsin genes. These results suggest a new mechanism by which rod and cone genes are differentially regulated by these transcription factors in rod photoreceptors.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationRetinal Degeneration
Subtitle of host publicationMethods and Protocols
EditorsBernhard H.F. Weber, Thomas Langmann
Number of pages18
StatePublished - 2013

Publication series

NameMethods in Molecular Biology
ISSN (Print)1064-3745


  • Double chromatin immunoprecipitation
  • Retinal photoreceptors
  • Target co-occupancy
  • Transcription factor interactions


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