Purpose of reviewThe development of donor-specific antibodies (DSA) after lung transplantation has been recognized as an important risk factor for poor outcomes over the past 20 years. Recently, this has been a focus of intense research, and the purpose of this review is to summarize our current understanding of humoral responses and important recent findings as well as to identify areas of future research.Recent findingsRecent studies have identified donor-derived cell-free DNA (ddcfDNA) as an important biomarker associated with antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). Importantly, ddcfDNA levels are noted to be elevated approximately 3 months before the onset of clinical allograft dysfunction, making ddcfDNA a particularly appealing biomarker to predict the onset of AMR. Additional notable recent findings include the identification of an independent association between the isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from respiratory specimens and the development of DSA. This finding provides potential insights into crosstalk between innate and alloimmune responses and identifies a potential therapeutic target to prevent the development of DSA.SummaryProgress in the field of humoral responses after lung transplantation has been slow, but ongoing and future research in this area are critically necessary to improve patient outcomes in the future.
- antibody-mediated rejection
- chronic lung allograft dysfunction
- donor-specific antibodies
- lung transplantation