Do shared etiological factors contribute to the relationship between sexual orientation and depression?

B. P. Zietsch, K. J.H. Verweij, A. C. Heath, P. A.F. Madden, N. G. Martin, E. C. Nelson, M. T. Lynskey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

78 Scopus citations


Background Gays, lesbians and bisexuals (i.e. non-heterosexuals) have been found to be at much greater risk for many psychiatric symptoms and disorders, including depression. This may be due in part to prejudice and discrimination experienced by non-heterosexuals, but studies controlling for minority stress, or performed in very socially liberal countries, suggest that other mechanisms must also play a role. Here we test the viability of common cause (shared genetic or environmental etiology) explanations of elevated depression rates in non-heterosexuals.Method A community-based sample of adult twins (n=9884 individuals) completed surveys investigating the genetics of psychiatric disorder, and were also asked about their sexual orientation. Large subsets of the sample were asked about adverse childhood experiences such as sexual abuse, physical abuse and risky family environment, and also about number of older brothers, paternal and maternal age, and number of close friends. Data were analyzed using the classical twin design.Results Non-heterosexual males and females had higher rates of lifetime depression than their heterosexual counterparts. Genetic factors accounted for 31% and 44% of variation in sexual orientation and depression respectively. Bivariate analysis revealed that genetic factors accounted for a majority (60%) of the correlation between sexual orientation and depression. In addition, childhood sexual abuse and risky family environment were significant predictors of both sexual orientation and depression, further contributing to their correlation.Conclusions Non-heterosexual men and women had elevated rates of lifetime depression, partly due to shared etiological factors, although causality cannot be definitively resolved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)521-532
Number of pages12
JournalPsychological medicine
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2012


  • Childhood abuse
  • depression
  • genetics
  • sexual orientation
  • twins


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