The GGA family of clathrin adaptor proteins mediates the intracellular trafficking of transmembrane proteins by interacting with DXXLL-type sorting signals on the latter. These signals were originally identified at the carboxy-termini of the transmembrane cargo proteins. Subsequent studies, however, showed that internal DXXLL sorting motifs occur within the N- or C-terminal cytoplasmic domains of cargo molecules. The GGAs themselves also contain internal DXXLL motifs that serve to auto-regulate GGA function. A recent study challenged the notion that internal DXXLL signals are competent for binding to GGAs. Since the question of whether GGA adaptors interact with internal DXXLL motifs is fundamental to the identification of bona fide GGA cargo, and to an accurate understanding of GGA regulation within cells, we have extended our previous findings. We now present additional evidence confirming that GGAs do interact with internal DXXLL motifs. We also summarize the recent reports from other laboratories documenting internal GGA binding motifs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1315-1325
Number of pages11
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2012


  • DXXLL motifs
  • GGA cargo molecules
  • GGA proteins


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