In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pif1 is involved in a wide range of DNA transactions. It operates both in mitochondria and in the nucleus, where it has telomeric and non-telomeric functions. All of the activities of Pif1 rely on its ability to bind to DNA. We have determined the mode of Pif1 binding to different DNA substrates. While Pif1 is a monomer in solution, we show that binding of ssDNA to Pif1 induces protein dimerization. DNA-induced dimerization of Pif1 is also observed on tailed- and forked-dsDNA substrates, suggesting that on the latter formation of a Pif1 dimer prevents binding of additional Pif1 molecules. A dimer of Pif1 also forms on ssDNA of random composition and in the presence of saturating concentrations of nonhydrolyzable ATP analogues. The observation that a Pif1 dimer is formed on unwinding substrates in the presence of ATP analogues suggests that a dimeric form of the enzyme might constitute the pre-initiation complex leading to its unwinding activity.