Divalent Cation Binding to the High- and Low-Affinity Sites on G-Actin

Chris T. Zimmerle, Kalliopi Patane, Carl Frieden

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48 Scopus citations


Metal binding to skeletal muscle G-actin has been assessed by equilibrium dialysis using 45Ca2+ and by kinetic measurements of the increase in the fluorescence of N-acetyl-N’-(5-sulfo-1-naphthyl)-ethylenediamine-labeled actin. Two classes of cation binding sites were found on G-actin which could be separated on the basis of their Ca2+ affinity: a single high-affinity site with a Kd considerably less than 1 μM and three identical moderate-affinity binding sites with a Kd of 18 μM. The data for the Mg2+-induced fluorescence enhancement of actin labeled with N-acetyl-N’-(5-sulfo-1-naphthyl)ethylenediamine support a previously suggested mechanism [Frieden, C. (1982) J. Biol. Chem. 257, 2882–2886] in which Ca2+ is replaced by Mg2+ at the moderate affinity sites(s), followed by a slow actin isomerization. This isomerization occurs independently of Ca2+ release from the high-affinity site. The fluorescence data do not support a mechanism in which this isomerization is directly related to Ca2+ release from the high-affinity site. Fluorescence changes of labeled actin associated with adding metal chelators are complex and do not reflect the same change induced by Mg2+ addition. Fluorescence changes in the labeled actin have also been observed for the addition of Cd2+ or Mn2+ instead of Mg2+. It is proposed actin may undergo a host of subtle conformational changes dependent on the divalent cation bound. We have also developed a method by which progress curves of a given reaction can be analyzed by nonlinear regression fitting of kinetic simulations to experimental reaction time courses. This method allows testing of different kinetic mechanisms by statistical methods and has been used in the fitting of actin isomerization data.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6545-6552
Number of pages8
Issue number20
StatePublished - 1987


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