Distinct genomic landscapes of gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma depending on PD-L1 expression identify mutations in RAS–MAPK pathway and TP53 as potential predictors of immunotherapy efficacy

J. Y. Wang, J. Xiu, Y. Baca, H. Arai, F. Battaglin, N. Kawanishi, S. Soni, W. Zhang, J. Millstein, A. F. Shields, A. Grothey, B. A. Weinberg, J. L. Marshall, E. Lou, M. Khushman, D. P.S. Sohal, M. J. Hall, M. Oberley, D. Spetzler, L. ShenW. M. Korn, H. J. Lenz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: The impact of molecular alterations on programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) combined positive score (CPS) is not well studied in gastroesophageal adenocarcinomas (GEAs). We aimed to characterize genomic features of tumors with different CPSs in GEAs. Patients and methods: Genomic alterations of 2518 GEAs were compared in three groups (PD-L1 CPS ≥ 10, high; CPS = 1-9, intermediate; CPS < 1, low) using next-generation sequencing. We assessed the impact of gene mutations on the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) and tumor immune environment based on the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and The Cancer Genome Atlas databases. Results: High, intermediate, and low CPSs were seen in 18%, 54% and 28% of GEAs, respectively. PD-L1 positivity was less prevalent in women and in tissues derived from metastatic sites. PD-L1 CPS was positively associated with mismatch repair deficiency/microsatellite instability-high, but independent of tumor mutation burden distribution. Tumors with mutations in KRAS, TP53, and RAS–mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway were associated with higher PD-L1 CPSs in the mismatch repair proficiency and microsatellite stability (pMMR&MSS) subgroup. Patients with RAS–MAPK pathway alterations had longer overall survival (OS) from ICIs compared to wildtype (WT) patients [27 versus 13 months, hazard ratio (HR) = 0.36, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.19-0.7, P = 0.016] and a similar trend was observed in the MSS subgroup (P = 0.11). In contrast, patients with TP53 mutations had worse OS from ICIs compared to TP53-WT patients in the MSS subgroup (5 versus 21 months, HR = 2.39, 95% CI: 1.24-4.61, P = 0.016). Conclusions: This is the largest study to investigate the distinct genomic landscapes of GEAs with different PD-L1 CPSs. Our data may provide novel insights for patient selection using mutations in TP53 and RAS–MAPK pathway and for the development of rational combination immunotherapies in GEAs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)906-916
Number of pages11
JournalAnnals of Oncology
Volume32
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2021

Keywords

  • PD-L1 expression
  • combined positive score
  • gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma
  • genomic landscape
  • immune checkpoint inhibitor

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