Alphaviruses are emerging and reemerging viruses that cause disease syndromes ranging from incapacitating arthritis to potentially fatal encephalitis. While infection by arthritogenic and encephalitic alphaviruses results in distinct clinical manifestations, both virus groups induce robust innate and adaptive immune responses. However, differences in cellular tropism, type I interferon induction, immune cell recruitment, and B and T cell responses result in differential disease progression and outcome. In this review, we discuss aspects of immune responses that contribute to protective or pathogenic outcomes after alphavirus infection.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)615-649
Number of pages35
JournalAnnual Review of Immunology
StatePublished - 2022


  • alphavirus
  • arbovirus
  • immunity
  • mouse models
  • pathogenesis
  • tropism


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