We performed a systematic review of the literature investigating the demographic and insurance-related factors linked to disparities in multiple myeloma (MM) care patterns in the United States from 2003 to 2021. Forty-six observational studies were included. Disparities in MM care patterns were reported based on patient race in 76% of studies (34 out of 45 that captured race as a study variable), ethnicity in 60% (12 out of 20), insurance in 77% (17 out of 22), and distance from treating facility, urbanicity, or geographic region in 62% (13 out of 21). A smaller proportion of studies identified disparities in MM care patterns based on other socioeconomic characteristics, with 36% (9 out of 25) identifying disparities based on income estimate or employment status and 43% (6 out of 14) based on language barrier or education-related factors. Sociodemographic characteristics are frequently associated with disparities in care for individuals diagnosed with MM. There is a need for further research regarding modifiable determinants to accessing care such as insurance plan design, patient out-of-pocket costs, preauthorization criteria, as well as social determinants of health. This information can be used to develop actionable strategies for reducing MM health disparities and enhancing timely and high-quality MM care.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e420-e427
JournalClinical Lymphoma, Myeloma and Leukemia
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2023


  • Health equity
  • Health insurance
  • Hematologic malignancies
  • Race
  • Social determinants of health


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