Direct comparison of the acute in vivo effects of HIV protease inhibitors on peripheral glucose disposal

Qingyun Yan, Paul W. Hruz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

54 Scopus citations


The clinical use of HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) is associated with the development of peripheral insulin resistance. The incidence and degree of impaired glucose tolerance observed in treated patients vary considerably between drugs, however. To compare the ability of HIV PIs to alter peripheral glucose disposal acutely in a genetically identical model system at therapeutically relevant drug levels, healthy lean male rats previously naive to PI exposure were given ritonavir, amprenavir, lopinavir/ritonavir (4:1), or atazanavir by continuous intravenous infusion to achieve steady state drug levels of 10 or 25 μM rapidly. Under euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp conditions, a dose-dependent reduction in the peripheral glucose disposal rate (Rd) was observed with all the PIs except atazanavir. The rank order of sensitivity was ritonavir, lopinavir, and then amprenavir. Changes in skeletal muscle and heart 2-deoxyglucose (2-DOG) uptake correlated with reductions in Rd. All 3 of these PIs also produced significant reductions in 2-DOG uptake into primary rat adipocytes in vitro. Atazanavir had no effect on glucose uptake in vitro or in vivo. The in vivo potency of PIs to impair peripheral glucose disposal acutely correlates with the degree of insulin resistance observed in HIV-infected patients receiving these drugs. Preclinical testing of novel candidate PIs in a rodent model system may be useful in identifying the future risk of altering glucose homeostasis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)398-403
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2005


  • Adipokines
  • Glucose clamp
  • Glucose transporter
  • Glucose uptake
  • HIV protease inhibitors
  • Insulin resistance
  • Rodents

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