Difficulties in Interpersonal Emotion Regulation: Initial Development and Validation of a Self-Report Measure

Katherine L. Dixon-Gordon, Lauren A. Haliczer, Lindsey C. Conkey, Diana J. Whalen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Scopus citations


Recent attention has focused on the role of interpersonal emotion regulation (IER) in the development and maintenance of a range of forms of psychopathology, including anxiety, depression, and borderline personality disorder (BPD). Despite the relevance of IER in psychopathology, few measures exist to characterize patterns of maladaptive IER. Our aim was to (1) develop a measure of maladaptive IER, (2) begin to explore the factor structure of this new measure, the difficulties in interpersonal regulation of emotions (DIRE), and (3) examine its association with symptoms of psychopathology. In Study 1, 853 Mechanical Turk workers completed the DIRE and measures of psychopathology symptoms. We identified two factors each in the IER and intrapersonal emotion regulation scales. In Study 2, 142 undergraduate students completed the DIRE and daily measures of emotion regulation and coping for 14 days. Preliminary findings suggest that the DIRE has adequate internal consistency and construct and predictive validity. This measure has the potential to supplement future efforts in assessing IER in psychopathology.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)528-549
Number of pages22
JournalJournal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 1 2018


  • Emotion dysregulation
  • Emotion regulation
  • Interpersonal emotion regulation
  • Psychopathology
  • Questionnaire

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