A comorbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with reading difficulties (RD) is common in children. However, children with ADHD + RD have a different reading and executive functions (EF) profile than children with RD alone. We compared the effect of an EF-based intervention on neural circuits related to EF in children with RD and those with ADHD + RD. Functional connectivity MRI data from a lexical decision task suggest that the RD-alone group showed greater improvement in EF and reading tests and greater functional connectivity between networks related to both higher- and lower-level visual processing and those related to ventral attention and dorsal attention, as well as semantic processing. Children with ADHD + RD showed greater connectivity between networks related to attention and dorsal attention and those related to visual processing and EF. Results are consistent with the Cognitive Subtype hypothesis and suggest that RD and ADHD + RD, although related behaviourally, are distinct disorders with regard to network response and connectivity during reading and after an EF-based intervention.
- Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
- Executive functions
- Functional connectivity
- Reading difficulties