Differential connections of the temporal pole with the orbital and medial prefrontal networks in macaque monkeys

Hideki Kondo, Kadharbatcha S. Saleem, Joseph L. Price

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175 Scopus citations


Previous studies indicate that the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex (OMPFC) is organized into "orbital" and "medial" networks, which have distinct connections with cortical, limbic, and subcortical structures. In this study, retrograde and anterograde tracer experiments in monkeys demonstrated differential connections between the medial and orbital networks and the dorsal and ventral parts of the temporal pole. The dorsal part, including dysgranular and granular areas (TGdd and TGdg), is reciprocally connected with the medial network areas on the medial wall and gyrus rectus (areas 10m, 10o, 11m, 13a, 14c, 14r, 25, and 32) and on the lateral orbital surface (areas Iai and 12o). The strongest connections are with areas 10m (caudal part), 14c, 14r, 25, 32, and Iai. The agranular temporal pole (TGa) is connected with several areas, but most strongly with medial network area 25. The granular area around the superior temporal sulcus (TGsts) and the ventral dysgranular and granular areas (TGvd and TGvg) are reciprocally connected with the orbital network (especially areas 11l, 13b, 131, 13m, Ial, Iam, and Iapm). TGsts is strongly connected with the entire orbital network, whereas areas TGvd and TGvg have lighter and more limited connections. Intrinsic connections within the temporal pole are also restricted to dorsal or ventral parts. Together with evidence that the dorsal and ventral temporal pole are differentially connected to auditory and visual areas of the superior and inferior temporal cortex, the results indicate separate connections between these systems and the medial and orbital prefrontal networks.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)499-523
Number of pages25
JournalJournal of Comparative Neurology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 27 2003


  • Anterograde axonal tracers
  • Architectonic areas
  • Medial prefrontal cortex
  • Orbital cortex
  • Retrograde axonal tracers
  • Temporal cortex


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