Dietary weight loss-induced improvements in metabolic function are enhanced by exercise in people with obesity and prediabetes

Joseph W. Beals, Brandon D. Kayser, Gordon I. Smith, George G. Schweitzer, Kyleigh Kirbach, Monica L. Kearney, Jun Yoshino, Gibraan Rahman, Rob Knight, Bruce W. Patterson, Samuel Klein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations

Abstract

The additional therapeutic effects of regular exercise during a dietary weight loss program in people with obesity and prediabetes are unclear. Here, we show that whole-body (primarily muscle) insulin sensitivity (primary outcome) was 2-fold greater (P = 0.006) after 10% weight loss induced by calorie restriction plus exercise training (Diet+EX; n = 8, 6 women) than 10% weight loss induced by calorie restriction alone (Diet-ONLY; n = 8, 4 women) in participants in two concurrent studies. The greater improvement in insulin sensitivity was accompanied by increased muscle expression of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, energy metabolism and angiogenesis (secondary outcomes) in the Diet+EX group. There were no differences between groups in plasma branched-chain amino acids or markers of inflammation, and both interventions caused similar changes in the gut microbiome. Few adverse events were reported. These results demonstrate that regular exercise during a diet-induced weight loss program has profound additional metabolic benefits in people with obesity and prediabetes. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1221-1235
Number of pages15
JournalNature Metabolism
Volume5
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2023

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