We investigated the prevalence and potential predictors of Doppler echocardiographic evidence of diastolic function in untreated hypertensive children. Doppler and M-mode echocardiographic values from 42 children (mean age 13, range 5-17 years) from a pediatric hypertension clinic were retrospectively reviewed and compared to data from 39 age and gender matched normotensive children in a control group. Compared to the participants in the control group, hypertensive patients had increased mean body mass index (29 v 19 kg/M2, P < .0001), peak mitral A velocity (57 v 42 cm/sec, P < .0001), isovolumic relaxation time (65 v 42 msec, P < .0001, resting heart rate (90 v 74 bpm, P < .0001), mitral E deceleration time (150 v 137 msec, P = .006), indexed left ventricular mass index (32 v 26 g/M2.7, P < .0001), relative left ventricular wall thickness (0.32 v 0.29, P = .02), and decreased ratio of peak mitral E velocity/peak mitral A velocity (1.7 v 2.1, P = .0001). Mean age, height, mitral E velocity, mitral A deceleration time, fractional shortening, and indexed left ventricular diastolic dimension were similar in patients and control group children. In the hypertensive patients, multivariate analysis demonstrated that heart rate (P = .0008) and systolic blood pressure (P = .03) were significant predictors of peak A velocity. In addition, heart rate (P = .0003), body mass index (P = .04), and indexed left ventricular diastolic dimension (P = .04) predicted the ratio of peak E/peak A velocity. None of the measures of diastolic function correlated with left ventricular mass index or relative wall thickness. Furthermore, none of the analyzed variables predicted isovolumic relaxation time or mitral E deceleration time. We conclude that untreated hypertensive children have Doppler indices suggestive of impaired left ventricular relaxation. Resting heart rate was the strongest predictor of abnormal diastolic indices.
- Diastolic function