Diagnosis and Management of Functional Tic-Like Phenomena

Irene A. Malaty, Seonaid Anderson, Shannon M. Bennett, Cathy L. Budman, Barbara J. Coffey, Keith A. Coffman, Erica Greenberg, Joseph F. McGuire, Kirsten R. Müller-Vahl, Michael S. Okun, Julio Quezada, Amy Robichaux-Viehoever, Kevin Black

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Over the past 3 years, a global phenomenon has emerged characterized by the sudden onset and frequently rapid escalation of tics and tic-like movements and phonations. These symptoms have occurred not only in youth known to have tics or Tourette syndrome (TS), but also, and more notably, in youth with no prior history of tics. The Tourette Association of America (TAA) convened an international, multidisciplinary working group to better understand this apparent presentation of functional neurological disorder (FND) and its relationship to TS. Here, we review and summarize the literature relevant to distinguish the two, with recommendations to clinicians for diagnosis and management. Finally, we highlight areas for future emphasis and research.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6470
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Issue number21
StatePublished - Nov 2022


  • Tourette syndrome
  • diagnosis
  • functional neurological disorder
  • functional tic-like behaviors
  • functional tics
  • management


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