The nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway selectively degrades mRNAs harboring premature termination codons but also regulates the abundance of cellular RNAs. We sought to identify transcripts that are regulated by two novel NMD factors, DHX34 and neuroblastoma amplified sequence (NBAS), which were identified in a genome-wide RNA interference screen in Caenorhabditis elegans and later shown to mediate NMD in vertebrates. We performed microarray expression profile analysis in human cells, zebrafish embryos and C. elegans that were individually depleted of these factors. Our analysis revealed that a significant proportion of genes are co-regulated by DHX34, NBAS and core NMD factors in these three organisms. Further analysis indicates that NMD modulates cellular stress response pathways and membrane trafficking across species. Interestingly, transcripts encoding different NMD factors were sensitive to DHX34 and NBAS depletion, suggesting that these factors participate in a conserved NMD negative feedback regulatory loop, as was recently described for core NMD factors. In summary, we find that DHX34 and NBAS act in concert with core NMD factors to co-regulate a large number of endogenous RNA targets. Furthermore, the conservation of a mechanism to tightly control NMD homeostasis across different species highlights the importance of the NMD response in the control of gene expression.