mTOR inhibitors such as everolimus may cause oral stomatitis, often a dose-limiting toxicity. Prior clinical research has suggested that a dexamethasone mouth rinse might help prevent and/or treat this. Alliance A221701 was a randomized phase III trial of patients initiating 10 mg daily oral everolimus that compared dexamethasone mouthwash taken preventively (initial dexamethasone group) versus therapeutically (initial placebo group) to assess two coprimary endpoints: the incidence of mTOR inhibitor-associated stomatitis (mIAS), and the area under the curve (AUC) of mIAS-associated pain over an 8-week treatment period. A Fisher's exact test was used to compare the incidences while a Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare the AUCs. In addition, we performed an exploratory analysis of the association of everolimus trough concentrations and toxicity using a Mann-Whitney U test. Due to slow accrual, this study closed after 39 patients were randomized (19 to upfront placebo and 20 to upfront dexamethasone). There were no significant differences between groups seen in either of the coprimary endpoints; furthermore, we found no association between whole blood everolimus trough concentrations and toxicity. Although limited by poor enrollment, the results of this study do not suggest that prophylactic dexamethasone mouthwash is superior to therapeutic dexamethasone mouthwash (initiated at the first sign of mouth pain) for reducing the incidence or severity of mIAS from everolimus.
- Mouth rinse
- mTOR inhibitors