Development of the Comprehensive Cervical Dystonia Rating Scale: Methodology

Cynthia L. Comella, Susan H. Fox, Kailash P. Bhatia, Joel S. Perlmutter, Hyder A. Jinnah, Mateusz Zurowski, William M. McDonald, Laura Marsh, Ami R. Rosen, Tracy Waliczek, Laura J. Wright, Wendy R. Galpern, Glenn T. Stebbins

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

44 Scopus citations


We present the methodology utilized for development and clinimetric testing of the Comprehensive Cervical Dystonia (CD) Rating scale, or CCDRS. The CCDRS includes a revision of the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS-2), a newly developed psychiatric screening tool (TWSTRS-PSYCH), and the previously validated Cervical Dystonia Impact Profile (CDIP-58). For the revision of the TWSTRS, the original TWSTRS was examined by a committee of dystonia experts at a dystonia rating scales workshop organized by the Dystonia Medical Research Foundation. During this workshop, deficiencies in the standard TWSTRS were identified and recommendations for revision of the severity and pain subscales were incorporated into the TWSTRS-2. Given that no scale currently evaluates the psychiatric features of cervical dystonia (CD), we used a modified Delphi methodology and a reiterative process of item selection to develop the TWSTRS-PSYCH. We also included the CDIP-58 to capture the impact of CD on quality of life. The three scales (TWSTRS2, TWSTRS-PSYCH, and CDIP-58) were combined to construct the CCDRS. Clinimetric testing of reliability and validity of the CCDRS are described. The CCDRS was designed to be used in a modular fashion that can measure the full spectrum of CD. This scale will provide rigorous assessment for studies of natural history as well as novel symptom-based or disease-modifying therapies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)135-141
Number of pages7
JournalMovement Disorders Clinical Practice
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 2015


  • CDIP-58
  • cervical dystonia
  • focal dystonia
  • rating scale


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