Development of exophytic tumor model for laparoscopic partial nephrectomy: Technique and initial experience

Josephine Hidalgo, Jay Belani, Keegan Maxwell, David Lieber, Michael Talcott, Pam Baron, Caroline Ames, Ramakrishna Venkatesh, Jaime Landman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Objectives. To develop and test a porcine model to help teach the techniques needed to perform laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN), which is a technically challenging procedure with necessary reconstructive skills that are difficult to transfer. Methods. A tumor model was created by unilateral subcapsular percutaneous injection of liquid plastic (Smooth-Cast 320) in five pig kidneys. Five Washington University urologists performed LPN and assessed the efficacy of the tumor model. Subsequently, the tumor model was evaluated as a tool for teaching LPN during the Washington University Advanced Laparoscopic and Robotic Urologic Oncology Course. Twenty-eight participants performed unilateral porcine LPN with the tumor model. Questionnaires were used to assess the utility of this tumor model. Results. Unilateral tumors were successfully created in five pigs and remained intact during all LPN procedures. Visually, the tumors appeared as white exophytic masses. Ultrasonography revealed a well-circumscribed, hypoechoic lesion and a mean diameter of 2.02 cm. The mean operative time was 32.4 minutes. In subsequent testing, 24 (86%) of the 28 participants returned the questionnaire, and 96% responded that the tumor model had enhanced their LPN learning experience. Seven course participants (29%) reported problems with hemostasis, ultrasonography, or laparoscopic instrumentation. Two tumor model-related complications occurred. During the initial evaluation, one pig experienced a fatal pulmonary embolism of the plastic. During the course, a second animal experienced extravasation of the solution into the renal collecting system. Conclusions. For surgical education purposes, the Smooth-Cast model is an effective surgical tool for LPN. Most of the surgeons in this evaluation believed the model enhanced their learning experience.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)872-876
Number of pages5
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1 2005


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