Development, Construct Validity, and Measurement Invariance of the Modified Classes of Racism Frequency of Racial Experiences Measure (M-CRFRE) to Capture Direct and Indirect Exposure to Perceived Racism-Based Police Use of Force for Black Emerging Adults

Robert O. Motley, Sean Joe, Amy McQueen, Maribeth Clifton, Demeisha Carlton-Brown

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objectives: To utilize focus groups, cognitive interviews, content expert panel, and computer-assisted surveys to develop and pilot survey items assessing exposure to perceived racism-based police violence to enhance the Classes of Racism Frequency of Racial Experiences (CRFRE). Method: Focus groups and cognitive interviews were conducted with Black emerging adults (n = 44) in St. Louis, Missouri. Utilizing a grounded theory approach, a thematic analysis of the focus group and cognitive interview transcripts was conducted to identify key items to be added to the CRFRE. Three content experts assessed the face and content validity of survey items. Computer-assisted surveys were conducted to pilot the modified CRFRE with a sample of Black emerging adults (n = 300). Confirmatory factor analyses and structural paths were used to examine the construct validity of the modified CRFRE. Results: Participant’s qualitative data and suggestions from content experts resulted in the development of 16 additional survey items regarding exposure to perceived racism-based police violence across three domains (victim, witness in person, and seen in media). The modified CRFRE measure showed construct validity, internal reliability, and measurement invariance between men and women. Conclusions: This study advances our epidemiological methodology for quantifying exposure to perceived racism-based police violence. Future research is necessary to assess the prevalence of exposure to perceived racism-based police violence and associated mental and behavioral outcomes for Black emerging adults in the U.S.

Original languageEnglish
JournalCultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2022

Keywords

  • Black
  • Emerging adults
  • Police
  • Racism
  • Violence

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Development, Construct Validity, and Measurement Invariance of the Modified Classes of Racism Frequency of Racial Experiences Measure (M-CRFRE) to Capture Direct and Indirect Exposure to Perceived Racism-Based Police Use of Force for Black Emerging Adults'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this