Development and Validation of a Multivariable Prediction Model for Missed HIV Health Care Provider Visits in a Large US Clinical Cohort

April C. Pettit, Aihua Bian, Cassandra O. Schember, Peter F. Rebeiro, Jeanne C. Keruly, Kenneth H. Mayer, W. Christopher Mathews, Richard D. Moore, Heidi M. Crane, Elvin Geng, Sonia Napravnik, Bryan E. Shepherd, Michael J. Mugavero

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Identifying individuals at high risk of missing HIV care provider visits could support proactive intervention. Previous prediction models for missed visits have not incorporated data beyond the individual level. Methods: We developed prediction models for missed visits among people with HIV (PWH) with ≥1 follow-up visit in the Center for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems from 2010 to 2016. Individual-level (medical record data and patient-reported outcomes), community-level (American Community Survey), HIV care site-level (standardized clinic leadership survey), and structural-level (HIV criminalization laws, Medicaid expansion, and state AIDS Drug Assistance Program budget) predictors were included. Models were developed using random forests with 10-fold cross-validation; candidate models with the highest area under the curve (AUC) were identified. Results: Data from 382 432 visits among 20 807 PWH followed for a median of 3.8 years were included; the median age was 44 years, 81% were male, 37% were Black, 15% reported injection drug use, and 57% reported male-to-male sexual contact. The highest AUC was 0.76, and the strongest predictors were at the individual level (prior visit adherence, age, CD4+ count) and community level (proportion living in poverty, unemployed, and of Black race). A simplified model, including readily accessible variables available in a web-based calculator, had a slightly lower AUC of. 700. Conclusions: Prediction models validated using multilevel data had a similar AUC to previous models developed using only individual-level data. The strongest predictors were individual-level variables, particularly prior visit adherence, though community-level variables were also predictive. Absent additional data, PWH with previous missed visits should be prioritized by interventions to improve visit adherence.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberofab130
JournalOpen Forum Infectious Diseases
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2021


  • HIV
  • missed visits
  • prediction model
  • random forests
  • retention in care


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