Development and preliminary evaluation of the tinnitus severity short form

Madelyn R. Frumkin, Dorina Kallogjeri, Jay F. Piccirillo, Eldre W. Beukes, Vinaya Manchaiah, Gerhard Andersson, Thomas L. Rodebaugh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Purpose: Tinnitus, or the perception of sounds that occur without an external sound source, is a prevalent condition worldwide. For a subset of adults, tinnitus causes significant distress and impairment. Several patient-reported outcome measures have been developed to assess severity of tinnitus distress. However, at present, the field lacks a brief measure that is sensitive to treatment change. The purpose of the current study was to develop and preliminarily validate a brief questionnaire for tinnitus severity from two existing measures of tinnitus-related distress, the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) and Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI). Method: Using data from nine study samples in the United States and United Kingdom, we conducted exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to identify a short measure with good psychometric properties. We also assessed sensitivity to treatment-related change by examining associations with change in the TFI and THI. Finally, we conducted a confirmatory factor analysis of the final short questionnaire in a new sample of adults seeking treatment for tinnitus- related distress. Results: We identified 10 items from the THI and TFI that exhibited limited loadings on secondary factors. The resulting Tinnitus Severity Short Form achieved good to excellent fit, including in a unique sample of individuals seeking online treatment for tinnitus, and appeared sensitive to treatment-related change. Conclusions: The Tinnitus Severity Short Form developed in the current study may be a useful tool for the assessment of subjective severity and distress associated with tinnitus, especially when patient burden is a concern. Further research is necessary to fully validate the questionnaire for the assessment of treatment-related change.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)404-415
Number of pages12
JournalAmerican Journal of Audiology
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2021


Dive into the research topics of 'Development and preliminary evaluation of the tinnitus severity short form'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this