Barrier tissues are the primary site of infection for pathogens likely to cause future pandemics. Tissue-resident lymphocytes can rapidly detect pathogens upon infection of barrier tissues and are critical in preventing viral spread. However, most vaccines fail to induce tissue-resident lymphocytes and are instead reliant on circulating antibodies to mediate protective immunity. Circulating antibody titers wane over time following vaccination leaving individuals susceptible to breakthrough infections by variant viral strains that evade antibody neutralization. Memory B cells were recently found to establish tissue residence following infection of barrier tissues. Here, we summarize emerging evidence for the importance of tissue-resident memory B cells in the establishment of protective immunity against viral and bacterial challenge. We also discuss the role of tissue-resident memory B cells in regulating the progression of non-infectious diseases. Finally, we examine new approaches to develop vaccines capable of eliciting barrier immunity.